Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry and Centria University of Applied Sciences have studied the quality differences in bilberries and lingonberries from Baltic Sea region. To learn more about the quality characterization and made observations, you can read the report here: Quality characterization of bilberries and lingonberries picked from different countries in 2019 and 2020


 High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of isoflavones in red clover extracts

Isoflavonoids are a class of phenolic compounds, many of which are biologically active. The isoflavonoid group includes isoflavones, isoflavanones, isoflavones, isoflavans, pterocarpans and coumestans. From the group of isoflavonoids, isoflavones and coumestans are often referred to as phytoestrogens due to their resemblance to estrogen (17β-Estradiol) and exertion of estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic effects (Krížová et al., 2019). In nature, isoflavones are typically present as glucosides, acetyl glucosides or malonyl glucosides (Munro et al., 2003).

The effect of phytoestrogens was found in 1940, when sheep ate subterranean clover and started to have diverse reproduction disorders. The reason was found in the formation of equol from isoflavones, especially formononetin (Krížová et al., 2019). The main sources of isoflavones are legumes such as soybeans (Glycine max), red clover (Trifolium pretense), white clover (Trifolium repens) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (Krížová et al., 2019; Munro et al., 2003). In plants, phytoestrogens give protection during stress and microbial attack, and have fungistatic, antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant properties (Krížová et al., 2019).

The purpose of the research was to study the extraction and analysis of isoflavones of red clover. The report presents what extraction methods and analysis parameters were tested and which showed to be the most promising for quantifying isoflavones with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). Extraction and analysis instructions are provided, as well as recommendations on how to proceed with method development. 


Download the report: High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of isoflavones in red clover extracts



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